Cervical Cancer Treatment in India - The main cause of cervical cancer is HPV (Human Papilloma Virus), a common virus that spreads through sexual intercourse
Cervical cancer originates in the cervix, the lower part of the uterus (womb) and opens into the vagina. It arises from the cells present on the surface of the cervix.
For pre-cancer and cancer, Pap smear screens are effective, though not for final diagnosis.
Colposcopy is carried out if abnormal changes are discovered. In this procedure, pieces of tissue are surgically removed (biopsy) and sent to a laboratory for examination under magnification.
Diagnosis TestsEndocervical curettage (ECC) is used to examine the opening of the cervix
Punch biopsy from cervical growth
The treatment of cervical cancer depends on:
Treatment of Early Cervical Cancers
* To ensure that a woman can bear children in the future, removing the precancerous or cancerous tissue without removing the uterus or harming the cervix, can cure early cervical cancer.
* Pre-cancerous conditions are curable when followed up and administered proper treatment.
* 92 per cent of women with cervical cancer have a five-year survival rate.
Treatment of Advanced Cervical Cancers
* Radical hysterectomy: The uterus and much of the surrounding tissues are removed, including lymph nodes and the upper part of the vagina.
*Radiation therapy: It is used in cases where the cancer has spread beyond the pelvis, or cancer that has returned.
External radiation therapy is like an X-ray and delivers radiation from a large machine onto the part of the body where the cancer is located.
Internal radiation therapy or brachytherapy entails placing a device filled with radioactive material inside the woman's vagina.
Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Image Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) help deliver radiation to the tumour and adjacent tissues sparing nearby normal structures like urinary bladder, rectum and intestines and thus preventing long term complications.
Chemotherapy uses drugs such as carboplatin, paclitaxel, 5-FU and cisplatin to destroy cervical cancer. It is generally used along with radiation to sensitize the tumour. Radiation and chemotherapy may be used before or after surgery.
* In 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Gardasil as a vaccine to prevent cervical cancer.
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